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3493. The constructor of std::function taking an F is missing a constraint

Section: 20.14.17.3.2 [func.wrap.func.con] Status: New Submitter: Ville Voutilainen Opened: 2020-10-31 Last modified: 2021-08-21

Priority: 3

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Discussion:

In P0288, any_invocable is (correctly) constraining its constructor that takes an F:

template<class F> any_invocable(F&& f);

Let VT be decay_t<F>.

Constraints:

  1. — […]

  2. is_constructible_v<VT, F> is true, and

  3. — […]

std::function doesn't do that. According to N4868, 20.14.17.3.2 [func.wrap.func.con] p8 has a constraint for Lvalue-Callable, but not for copy-constructibility. There is a precondition in p9, but that's not enough for portable well/ill-formedness.

Since this is a constructor, and we want to give the right answer to is_constructible/constructible_from queries, we should add the relevant constraint.

[2020-11-01; Daniel comments]

This issue has some overlap with LWG 2774.

[2021-01-15; Telecon prioritization]

Set priority to 3 following reflector and telecon discussions.

[2021-05-17; Tim comments]

The new constraint causes constraint recursion in an example like:

struct C {
    explicit C(std::function<void()>); // #1
    void operator()() {}
};
static_assert(std::is_constructible_v<C, const C&>);

Here, to determine whether a C can be constructed from a const C lvalue, the overload resolution will attempt to determine whether the constructor marked #1 is a viable candidate, which involves a determination of whether that lvalue can be implicitly converted to a std::function<void()>, which, with the new constraint, requires a determination whether C is copy-constructible — in other words, whether it can be constructed from a C lvalue.

This is similar to LWG 3420: in both cases we have a class (filesystem::path there, function here) that is convertible from every type that are, inter alia, copy constructible, and this then results in constraint recursion when we ask whether a different type that is constructible from such a class is copy constructible.

The C above is reduced from an internal helper type in libstdc++. Given the ubiquity of call wrappers — types that are callable in their own right and therefore may not be able to be ruled out by the Lvalue-Callable constraint, and can also naturally have a constructor that take the wrapped function object as the argument, triggering the recursion scenario — it is not clear that there is a good way to add this constraint without causing undue breakage.

[2021-08-20; LWG telecon]

LWG requested that the constraint cited above for move_only_function (né any_invocable) be moved to a Mandates: element instead, to avoid the same constraint recursion.

Proposed resolution:

This wording is relative to N4868.

  1. Modify 20.14.17.3.2 [func.wrap.func.con] as indicated:

    template<class F> function(F f);
    

    -8- Constraints: F is Lvalue-Callable (20.14.17.3.1 [func.wrap.func.general]) for argument types ArgTypes... and return type R, and is_copy_constructible_v<F> is true.

    -9- Preconditions: F meets the Cpp17CopyConstructible requirements.

    […]