*This is an unofficial snapshot of the ISO/IEC JTC1 SC22 WG21
Core Issues List revision 112e.
See http://www.open-std.org/jtc1/sc22/wg21/ for the official
list.*

2023-12-02

#### 238.
Precision and accuracy constraints on floating point

**Section: **Clause 7 [expr]
**Status: **CD4
**Submitter: **Christophe de Dinechin
**Date: **31 Jul 2000

[Adopted at the February, 2016 meeting.]

It is not clear what constraints are placed on a floating point
implementation by the wording of the Standard. For instance, is
an implementation permitted to generate a "fused multiply-add"
instruction if the result would be different from what would
be obtained by performing the operations separately? To what
extent does the "as-if" rule allow the kinds of optimizations
(e.g., loop unrolling) performed by FORTRAN compilers?

**Proposed resolution (September, 2015):**

Change 6.8.2 [basic.fundamental] paragraph 8 as follows:

There are three *floating point*
types: `float`, `double`, and `long double`. The type
`double` provides at least as much precision as `float`, and
the type `long double` provides at least as much precision
as `double`. The set of values of the type `float` is a
subset of the set of values of the type `double`; the set of values
of the type `double` is a subset of the set of values of the type
`long double`. The value representation of floating-point types is
implementation-defined. [*Note:* This International Standard
imposes no requirements on the accuracy of floating-point operations; see
also 17.3 [support.limits]. —*end
note*] *Integral* and *floating* types are collectively
called *arithmetic* types. Specializations of the
standard library template `std::numeric_limits`
(17.3 [support.limits]) shall specify the maximum and minimum values of
each arithmetic type for an implementation.