This is an unofficial snapshot of the ISO/IEC JTC1 SC22 WG21 Core Issues List revision 112e. See for the official list.


2219. Dynamically-unreachable handlers

Section: 14.4  [except.handle]     Status: drafting     Submitter: 2016-01-04     Date: Richard Smith

Consider the following example:

  #include <cstdio>
  #include <cstdlib>

  void f() {
    struct X {
     ~X() {
    } x;
    throw 0;

  int main(int argc, char**) {
    try {
    } catch (int) {

According to the Standard, this should print unwound and exit. Current optimizing implementations call terminate(), because:

More abstractly, before calling terminate, we're required to check whether there is an active handler for an exception of type int, and in some sense there is not (because the handler in main is dynamically unreachable).

There seem to be three possible solutions:

  1. Change the standard to say that terminate() is a valid response to this situation [this seems problematic, as any non-returning destructor now risks program termination, but is in fact the status quo on multiple implementations and does not seem to have resulted in any bug reports]

  2. Always fully unwind before calling terminate() [this significantly harms debugability of exceptions]

  3. Teach the compilers to not optimize out unreachable exception handlers [for some implementations, this is “remove, redesign and reimplement middle-end support for EH”-level difficult, and harms the ability to optimize code involving catch handlers]